As near-surface oxide orebodies are depleted, mines are having to process deeper sulfide ores that are lower in metal grade and metallurgically more complex. Modern technologies that are simple, cost effective and environmentally sound are required for their extraction. In many cases, bioleaching is the most suitable process.


  • ANDREWS, L., and NEALE, J.W. A mineralogical evaluation of arsenate products formed during the bacterial oxidation of gold ores. Centennial Geocongress. Johannesburg, 1995. Extended abstracts, vol. 2, pp. 907–910.