As near-surface oxide orebodies are depleted, mines are having to process deeper sulfide ores that are lower in metal grade and metallurgically more complex. Modern technologies that are simple, cost effective and environmentally sound are required for their extraction. In many cases, bioleaching is the most suitable process.


  • GERICKE, M., GOVENDER, Y., and PINCHES, A. Tank bioleaching of low-grade chalcopyrite concentrates using redox control. Hydrometallurgy, vol. 104, iss. 3–4, 2010. pp. 414–419.
  • GOVENDER, Y., RIDDIN, T., GERICKE, M., and WHITELEY, C.G. On the enzymatic formation of platinum nanoparticles. J. Nanopart. Res., vol. 12, 2010. pp. 261–271.
  • RIDDIN, T., GERICKE, M., and WHITELEY, C.G. Biological synthesis of platinum nanoparticles: effect of initial metal concentration. Enzyme Microb. Technol., vol. 46, 2010. pp. 501–505.
  • ROBERTSON, S., SEYEDBAGHERI, A., VAN STADEN, P., and GUZMAN, A. Advances in heap leach research and development. ALTA 2009 Nickel-Cobalt-Copper. Melbourne, ALTA Hydrometallurgical Services, 2010. 16 pp.