A wide range of classical analyses are done by volumetric (titrimetric), colourimetric, gravimetric and spectrophotometric techniques. These are useful for high-precision work, as well as for some difficult analyses, including speciation of elements. Analyses include:
- Determination of total carbon and sulphur in solids, and oxygen and nitrogen in metals, by combustion;
- Gravimetric analyses such as proximate analysis of coal, silicate and sulphate determination;
- Routine water analysis (inorganic), including pH, TSS, TDS, conductivity, fluoride and toxic contaminants;
- TCLP and acid rain extractions;
- Determination of anions by IC;
- Colourimetric determination of P, SiO2, ammonia, etc.; and,
- Speciation analysis, including carbonate, S species, Cr6+ and Fe2+ / Fe3+.