As near-surface oxide orebodies are depleted, mines are having to process deeper sulfide ores that are lower in metal grade and metallurgically more complex. Modern technologies that are simple, cost effective and environmentally sound are required for their extraction. In many cases, bioleaching is the most suitable process.


  • MILLER, P. C. Large-scale bacterial leaching of a copper-zinc ore in situ. Fundamental and applied biohydrometallurgy. Lawrence, R.W., Branion, R.M.R., and Ebner, H.G. (eds.). Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1986. pp. 215–239.