As near-surface oxide orebodies are depleted, mines are having to process deeper sulfide ores that are lower in metal grade and metallurgically more complex. Modern technologies that are simple, cost effective and environmentally sound are required for their extraction. In many cases, bioleaching is the most suitable process.


  • PINCHES, A., CHAPMAN, J.T., TE RIELE, W.A.M., and VAN STADEN, M. The performance of bacterial leach reactors for the pre-oxidation of refractory gold-bearing sulphide concentrates. Biohydrometallurgy: Proceedings of the International Biohydrometallurgy Symposium. Norris, P. and Kelly, D.P. (eds.). Kew, Antony Rowe Limited, 1987. pp. 329–344.